Browsing Undergraduate Research Proposals by Title
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- ItemOpen AccessAttitudes and perceptions of STI clients towards provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-06-30) Nyama, DianaThis study aims at exploring clients' attitudes and perception towards provider initiated HIV testing and counseling. Specifically, it aims at assessing their knowledge on PTIC, their perceived benefits of PTIC, their attitudes and factors that influence their choice not to test for HIV. The study will employ the qualitative study method and it will be conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. The subjects will be clients attending the STI clinic and the sample will be ten. The significance of the study is to help health workers to have an insight on the fears that clients have hence to find strategies of initiating HIV testing and changing the negative attitudes that client have. The data will be collected by interviewing the clients for about 30 minutes using an interview guide by the researcher and it will be analysed manually.
- ItemOpen AccessAttitudes of people around Lumbadzi area in Lilongwe towards care rendered by nurses during bereavement.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-07-14) Chilumpha, Enifa L.
- ItemOpen AccessAvailability and usage of occupational health services in Kanengo industrial area.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2000-04-30) Matale, EdnaA descriptive study on availability and usage of occupational health services was done in Kanengo industrial area in the city of Lilongwe in order to establish the availability and usage of these services in this industrial area. The study involved a sample of 10 companies, which were selected through systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a questionnaire in an interview schedule. The data was later shared among 11 researchers who did the data collection and was then analysed using descriptive statistics and description of facts. The study results indicated that most occupational health services are available in Kanengo industries and generally used by workers. The results further revealed that noise from machines, fatigue and lifting are the major hazards in Kanengo while malaria is the common illness. It can therefore be concluded that Kanengo industries have most of the occupational health services, which are used by most workers.
- ItemOpen AccessChallenges experienced by midwives to implement BEMONC activities at Bwaila hospital.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-07-16) Lungu, Gaily Graysham Gama
- ItemOpen AccessChallenges faced by commercial sex workers using the female condom in light of HIV and AIDS at Chigwirizano in Lilongwe district.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2009-12-04) Salima, Racheal B.This is a study which was conducted on challenges faced by commercial sex workers using the female condom in light of HIV/AIDS in Lilongwe district. The main aim of this study was to explore the challenges faced by commercial sex workers using the female condoms. The methodology used in this research study was the qualitative method and 10 in-depth interviews were conducted so as to assess the subjects individually about their experience with the female condoms. During the interviews the information was recorded using the tape recorder, the information which was transcribed in Chichewa was later on translated into English. In order to conduct the study in respect of human dignity, integrity and authority, ethical considerations were considered. The findings in this study revealed that the commercial sex workers using the female condoms meet challenges such as problems with insertion and maintenance of the female condom during sex, resistance of the male clients to using the female condom due to lack of knowledge about the female condoms, female condom being expensive, unavailability of the female condoms in the community shops and the female condom being expensive.
- ItemOpen AccessChallenges inmates face in utilizing human immunodeficiency virus testing services and accessing antiretroviral therapy at Maula prison in Lilongwe district.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-07-14) Jowasi, Ignasio MathewsBACKGROUND HIV infection in prisons is higher than in the general population (AVERT, May 2010). According to latest figures for Maula Prison, the authorities reported that 40% of its population is reactive unlike the average prevalence rate of 12% nationwide. This study would like to explore the challenges these inmates face in accessing HCT services and ARVs. SIGNIFICANCE This study will be used as an evaluation tool in HCT and ARV administration in prisons. Healthy prisoners positively contribute to the work force of the prisons' farms. The government will reduce the cost of food for the prisoners. Proper referral system of pardoned or acquitted prisoners can bee established. METHODOLOGY The research design will be a qualitative study design in order to get more of the participants' interpretation of the situation. An interview guide containing both open and close ended questions will be used for data collection. Purposive or judgmental sampling will be used in this study from a population of 10 prisoners at Maula prison in Lilongwe District. ETHICS Permission will be requested for from relevant authorities for approval before going ahead with data collection. KCN Research and Publications Committee, Prison Headquarters, Maula prison and Ntchisi prison will be approached for their approval. Participants will be explained on being involved in the study on voluntary basis and can drop at any time without being penalized. Finally, the participants will be given a consent form to sign before data collection to show that they have accepted to take part in the study.
- ItemOpen AccessChallenges of partner notification faced by HIV-positive women attending art clinic.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2008-11-26) Nyalapa, Macdonald WilliamsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection prevention and control depend on the strategies put in place to prevent new infections and to treat currently infected individuals. Voluntary HIV counselling and testing is one of the strategies employed in the prevention, control and treatment of HIV and AIDS. However, there are significant limitations of these strategies that need to be addressed in order to achieve maximum potential benefits from these programs. One of the most striking limitations is the low serostatus disclosure rate to sex partners among clients who have been counselled and tested for HIV which is a serious public health concern. A qualitative study was done to explore the existing challenges of partner notification faced by HIV-positive women and specifically, the study focused on the women's knowledge on the concept of partner notification and its importance, beliefs held about partner notification, problems related to partner notification faced and the perceived feelings before and after partner notification. The study setting for the study was Kawale Health centre, Lilongwe. Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted among fifteen HIV-positive women who were attending ART clinic at Kawale Health centre. The participants were purposively sampled and the data was analysed manually using descriptive statistics and content analysis. The study revealed that HIV-positive women perceive partner notification as a very important and beneficial measure of increasing the rate of HIV testing and also a measure of HIV and AIDS control. It also indicated that the rate of HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive women to their sexual partners is high because of the understanding of the benefits of partner notification. Generally, challenges of partner notification faced by HIV-positive women are not very common. However, lack of understanding of the benefits of partner notification by some husbands still compromises the rate of HIV status disclosure by these women. The study also revealed a growing need for the enhancement of the role of the nurse for instance educating and counselling spouses on the benefits of partner notification to minimize these challenges. Based on the findings, relevant recommendations have been made to nurse practitioners, managers, educators and researchers in order to improve the practice of partner notification.
- ItemOpen AccessChild malnutrition in Blantyre City urban Slums: A distressing reality in Ndirande township(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2013-09-13) Thauzeni, Christina P.Malnutrition is a state of nutrition in which a deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein and other nutrients causes measurable adverse effects on tissue / body form (body shape, size and composition) and function and clinical outcome. The research study seeks to investigate why there is high prevalence of under five malnutrition in Ndirande Township. The findings of the study will attempt to identify what could be done to reduce cases of under five malnutrition in Ndirande Township. As a result the strategies that will be recommended will assist the Blantyre District Health Office in devising appropriate interventions to reduce cases of under five malnutrition specifically in Ndirande Township as well as other Townships in Blantyre that have similar social-economic and nutritional problems. The type of study to be used in this research is qualitative. The sample size will be 15 and the subjects will be mothers of under five malnourished children attending nutrition clinic at Ndirande Health Center. The research will be done using semi structured interviews. Data will be, organized, sorted and stored and thereafter coding will be done followed by interpretation. The study findings shall be disseminated by distributing copies to Ndirande Health Center, Blantyre District Health Office, Kamuzu College of Nursing and other concerned organizations.
- ItemOpen AccessClients satisfaction with health services at Zingwangwa health centre.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2009-11-20) Nyirenda, Florence LuhangaSurvey research into client satisfaction is responsible for developing a number of related concepts concerning the ways in which clients evaluate the health care that they receive. Recently, doubts have been expressed to the adequacy of understanding how clients anticipate and respond to medical encounters and health services. The current study assesses client satisfaction with health services at Zingwangwa Health Centre and also explores ways of improving client satisfaction. In a field study, questionnaires were administered to a convenient sample of 30 clients at Zingwangwa Health Centre ranging from outpatients (male or female, old or young), antenatal mothers, postnatal mothers, family planning clients and those are coming for voluntary counseling and testing. Client satisfaction as an independent variable was measured by three dependent variables such as waiting time, level of interaction between health personnel and clients, and quality of the facilities and service providers. The results indicate that client satisfaction at Zingwangwa Health Centre was rated highly by the respondents on all the three variables. Over 50% of the respondents rated the three variables positively and this is contrary to findings from other studies that client satisfaction is low in health services.
- ItemOpen AccessCommunity participation practices in safe motherhood issues in Monkey-bay, Nankhwali and Nkope areas.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-07-14) Chisenga, BeatriceThe research will use descriptive evaluative design in a survey with questionnaires and interviews. The study will therefore use a qualitative as well as quantitative research techniques. The study will examine the extent of community participation in Safe Motherhood (S.M.) activities. A convenient sample of seventy subjects will be drawn from catchment areas of three Health Centers (WC). Two villages will be randomly selected from each H/C catchment area. The study subjects will include women, men, village influential leaders, and health workers at H/C level. The expected results should focus low community participation in S.M. due to poor leadership styles lack of participation in carrying out community needs assessment in S.M., poor community organization and lack of capacity building at village level.
- ItemOpen AccessCommunity views on establishment of health care facilities for frail elderly in a/47 and Chinsapo village in Lilongwe.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-07-15) Mwalukomo, TumpeThe title of the study is, "Community Perceptions on Establishment of Health Care facilities for physically or mentally Frail Elderly People". The study will be conducted in Lilongwe District, particularly in A/47 and Chinsapo village. The study has adopted "Orem's General Theory" as its conceptual/theoretical framework. Phenomelogical qualitative design will be used. The population of the study will consist of caregivers of physically or mentally frail elderly people and the frail elderly. These respondents will be selected through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews using an in-depth interview guide will be used for data collection. To ensure validity and reliability of the instrument, the data collection tool will be pilot-tested in A/ 15 and Mitundu in Lilongwe district before actual administration in A/47 and Mitundu in the same District. Data analysis will be analyzed manually using descriptive statistics. To ensure that study is ethical, respondents' rights will be respected. These rights are: right not to be harmed, right to full disclosure, right of self-determination and right of privacy, anonymity and confidentiality. The results of the findings will be disseminated through KCN Library and the department of basic studies.
- ItemOpen AccessConcurrent use of traditional medicine and Antiretroviral therapy among AIDS support group members in Lunzu, Blantyre(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-07-14) Gwesere, D. Dennis
- ItemOpen AccessConcurrent use of traditional medicine and antiretroviral therapy among aids support group members in Lunzu, Blantyre.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-12-01) Gwesere, Dennis D.The descriptive study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The general aim of the study was to explore the practice of concurrent use of traditional medicine and highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with AIDS in Lunzu, sub-urban of Blantyre in Malawi. Using purposive sampling, 30 participants were drawn from the Chisomo PLWHA support group. The sample comprised of 27 female and 3 males. Pilot study was conducted at Chisenjere AIDS support group in the same location. Permission to conduct the study was sought from relevant authorities and in addition, participants were requested to give informed consent. Data was collected using face to face interview with the participant using the semi-structured questionnaire as a data collection tool and guide. Analysis of the data was done using both SPSS 17 computer package and content analysis. The results were communicated to nursing faculty of Kamuzu college of Nursing, NAMPHAM secretariat, and the Blantyre District Health Officer. The study has found that 63% of AIDS support group members combine traditional medicine and antiretroviral therapy without the knowledge of the health care provider. Uncertified immune boosters and herbs are the most used traditional medicine by clients. Drug side effects and chronic nature of AIDS are some of predictors to the use of traditional medicine. It is recommended that traditional medicine policy be developed to protect the public form some potentially harmful medicine. Finally, more research is needed to explore the efficacy and safety of some the traditional medicines being used by AIDS clients.
- ItemOpen AccessContributing factors to maternal complications during Labour and delivery at Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) IN Nkhotakota(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2008-11-30) Seven, Faith, VioletThis study aimed at exploring contributing factors to maternal complications during labour and delivery at T BAs in Nkhotakota. Maternal complications are one of the 1 causes of maternal death in Malawi. The study employed a qualitative research design. The setting was Nkhotakota District Hospital and TBAs clinics. The sites were chosen to represent other T BAs clinics and the hospital as a referral site for complicated maternal cases. Purposive sampling was used. A total of fifteen participants were recruited in the study of which ten were women who developed complications at T BAs and five were trained 1 and practicing T BAs. Semi structured questionnaires were used to collect data. Data was analysed manually using content analysis. The findings of the study have revealed that maternal complications at TBAs is a result of an interplay of several factors such as delay in decision making both by T BAs and husbands of clients, unsafe practices during labour and delivery, dirty environment, poverty and long distance to reach the health facility. It is therefore important to address the challenges met by T BAs and weaknesses of T BAs considering that the access to acceptable, professional, modern health care services for all pregnant women is still not met and the fact that T BAs represent the only source available for maternity care to many developing country women including Malawi.
- ItemOpen AccessContributing factors to recurrent cases of smear positive Tuberculosis.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2002-07-05) Lwesha, Victoria MayamingieTuberculosis is a leading cause of death among adults in Malawi and the single type that is giving many problems is smear positive Tuberculosis. This type of Tuberculosis needs adequate treatment with ant TB drugs for the required period. Many patients are readmitted into the hospital with recurrent smear positive Tuberculosis and this give problems to the health care system as it calls for retreatment. The purpose of this study was to assess and evaluate the contributing factors to recurrent cases of smear positive Tuberculosis. The study specifically aimed at exploring how supervision of patients is done at hospital, health center and guardian level, identifying problems that hinder effective treatment of smear positive Tuberculosis and exploring suggestions from health workers patients and guardians on how to improve treatment and supervision of patients with smear positive Tuberculosis. A descriptive research design was used and the study involved 30 subjects who consisted of health workers, patients and guardians. The study was conducted at Bottom hospital and area 25-health center. An interview guide was used to collect data from patients and health workers and a question guide was used for focus group discussions to collect data from guardians. Data was analysed manually to determine frequency distributions and responses from focus group discussions were categorized and subjected to descriptive statistics of content analysis. The study findings indicated lack of adequate knowledge by patients and guardians on TB disease and principles of treatment as one of the main contributing factor to recurrent cases of smear positive TB. The results also indicated lack of adequate supervision and adequate follow up of defaulters due to lack of human and material resources as other contributing factors. Poor social economic status of the patients and guardians, poor relationship between clients and health workers and long period of treatment featured as the other major contributing factors to recurrent cases of smear Positive Tuberculosis. If health planers and health workers do not address these areas, the hospitals will continue registering increased numbers of Smear Positive Tuberculosis.
- ItemOpen AccessContributing factors towards resurgence of Leprosy.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2008-07-18) Iman, LatifaLeprosy is a leading cause of disability in Malawi. Many people were left with disability due to leprosy. Leprosy needs adequate treatment with MDT for the required period of time. Many new cases are registered with leprosy into the hospitals. This gives problems to the public as it calls for a lot of money for training and drugs. The purpose of this study is to assess and evaluate the-contributing factors towards resurgence of leprosy. The study specifically aims at determining the numbers of new cases registered at Nkhota-kota District since November 2007, to find out if health workers know on the prevalence of leprosy disease condition, to assess the knowledge level of health workers on management of leprosy and to find out drug compliance of patient with leprosy. A quantitative design will be used to meet these objectives. The study will involve 30 subjects who will consist of health workers and client with leprosy. The study will be conducted at Nkhota-kota District Hospital. A questionnaire will be used to collect data from the patients and health workers Data will be coded and analyzed manually using descriptive. statistics. The responses will be written down and similar responses will be counted by tallying then they will be summed up.
- ItemOpen AccessCoping mechanisms against stigma for people living with HIV/AIDS in Balaka(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2008-11-30) Nyson, ChikondiThe study aimed to explore the coping mechanisms of PLWH against stigma in Balaka. Roy adaptation Model was adopted to guide the researcher in the research process. A qualitative research design was used with a sample size of 10 people both men and women to explore the coping mechanisms. The researcher used random sampling in the selection of the participants. A semi-structured interview guide was used for the purpose of data collection and the data was analysed through content analysis where three themes from the results were identified. These include; knowledge on positive living, forms of stigma and coping strategies e.g. rationalization, seeing oneself as ok, concentrating on other things, acceptance, turning to God, joining a group, disclosing, educating others, changing one's lifestyles and going for counselling. The identified coping strategies have been labelled action based strategies or emotion based coping strategies. Coping appears to be self taught in managing stigma.
- ItemOpen AccessCoping mechanisms utilized by children suffering from asthma at Phalombe health centre.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-07-14) Wataya, Stella MaluwaThe study is on coping mechanisms utilized by children suffering from asthma. The purpose of the current study is to explore coping mechanisms utilized by patients suffering from asthma that can play a role in how the patients adapt to the disease. The study will be conducted at Phalombe health centre in Phalombe district. The study will use qualitative method. Roy's Adaptation model will be used in the study: A convenient sample of 10 patients at the out-patient department will be recruited for the study. The participants will be interviewed using an interview guide. Data collected will be analysed using content analysis.
- ItemOpen AccessDeaf clients' experience in accessing health care services in Lilongwe urban(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2010-11-10) Sabola, Edison WakaleThe plight of the deaf patients in accessing the health care services has been a problem especially in the developing countries where proper structures and training of the health personnel on issues of communicating with the deaf patients is still a major challenge. Like any person who is able to hear properly, deaf clients have been experiencing communication problems and isolation by health care workers, as most of them find it difficult to obtain data from patients, as well as giving advice on how to use things like medication. Another concern comes on the issue of lack of privacy as some of the patients need interpreters to express the information to the health personnel. This has led to poor diagnosis being made on the clients leading to wrong prescription of treatment made to those patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the experiences as well as challenges faced by the deaf clients in accessing health services from the health personnel in Lilongwe Urban. A qualitative research design was used whereby a sample of 10 participants were selected randomly and interviewed using an interview guide, with the help of the certified sign language interpreter. Data was analyzed using content analysis.
- ItemOpen AccessDescription of effectiveness of standard case management of Pneumonia in under-five children towards client’s outcome at Kasungu district hospital.(Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, 2009-06-12) Kudya, MercyThe aim of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the Standard Case Management of Pneumonia in under-five Children towards the clients' outcome. Its objectives will be to assess the effectiveness of the standard case management, to describe its effectiveness and identify challenges of standard case management in under-five children. The quantitative descriptive design will be used to this study. A systematic sampling technique will be used to sample the pneumonia files of under-five children at Kasungu district hospital at paediatric ward. The number of files to be samples will be 20 of 2008. Questionnaire will be used to collect data from the pneumonia files of under-five children. Data will be analysed manually and the findings will be presented in graphs, tables and pie charts. The major findings wilt be summarized at the end.